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Na danasnji dan: 20-04-2014

Islamski kalendar ili Muslimanski kalendar poznat i kao Hidžri(jski) kalendar) je kalendar koji se koristi za datiranje događaja u mnogim muslimanskim zemljama i univerzalno za određivanje islamskih svetih dana.

To je lunarni kalendar sa 12 lunarnih meseci u svakoj godini, koja traje oko 354 dana. Pošto je ovakva godina oko 11 dana kraća od solarne godine, islamski značajni dani su, mada fiksni po svom kalendaru, svake solarne godine oko 11 dana ranije, npr. u odnosu na gregorijanski kalendar. Islamske godine se takođe nazivaju godine Hidžre, pošto je prva godina bila ona tokom koje se dogodila Hidžra — seoba proroka Muhameda iz Meke u Medinu. Zato je svaka numerisana godina označena sa H ili AH, ovo drugo je od latinskog Anno Hegirae ("u godini Hidžre"). U našim krajevima se takođe može reći Hidžretska godina tj. H.G.

Tekuća islamska godina (približno od 10. januara do 28. decembra 2008.) je 1429 AH.

Islamski kalendar je lunarni (mesecni) kalendar. On se za protok vremena ravna prema mesečevim mjenama. Jedna puna mesečeva mjena (transformacija od meseca mlađaka na nebu do punog mjeseca i potom opet do mlađaka) označava protok jednog mjeseca po kalendaru.

Za početak islamskog kalendara uzima se Hidžra, preseljenje Muhammeda a.s. iz Meke u Medinu usljed progona i pritisaka koje su nad njim vršili idolopoklonici iz njegovog rodnog grada.

Značajni i važni dani u islamskom kalendaru su:

Datumi po gregorijanskom su približni, jer je islamski kalendar u osnovi osmatrački, a kako je gore navedeno, ima i više načina za njegovo izračunavanje; pravi dan se može razlikovati za jedan ili dva dana (vidi npr. i [3]):

 - - svaki petak - (dan kada je stvoren Adam); naročita molitva (Džuma) i imamova propoved, posebno je značajan poslednji petak u Ramadanu
 - - 1 Muharram - Islamska nova godina - 10.1. 2008. (1429. AH); 29.12. 2008. (1430. AH); 18.12. 2009 (1431. AH).
 - - 10 Muharram - Jevmi Ašura; godišnjica mučeništva imama Huseina (sina imama Alija) i njegovih sledbenika, naročito važno za šiite - 19.1. 2008.; 7.1. 2009.; 27.12. 2009.;
 - - 12 Rabiul Awal - Milad un Nabi (Mevlud) za sunitske muslimane (rođenje Muhameda a. s.) - 20.3. 2008.; 9.3. 2009.; 26.2. 2010.;
 - - 17 Rabiul Awal - Milad un Nabi za šiitske muslimane
 - - 5 Rajab - 1. mubarek noć – Lejletu-r-regaib
 - - 13 Rajab - Rođendan imama Alija, Muhamedovog rođaka i zeta - 17.7. 2008.; 6.7. 2009.; 25.6. 2010.;
 - - 26 Rajab - 2. mubarek noć – Lejletu-l-Mi'radž – Dan Vakifa - 30.7. 2008.; 19.7. 2009.; 8.7. 2010.;
 - - 27 Rajab (Isra i Miradž) - "Noć putovanja i uznesenja", kada se veruje da je Muhamed putovao na najvišu nebesku sferu i dogovorio pet dnevnih molitvi umesto pedeset
 - - 14 Sha'aban - 3. mubarek noc – Lejletu-l-berat - 17.8. 2008.; 6.8. 2009.; 26.7. 2010. - "Noć slobode od vatre", noć božanskog blagoslova za muslimane
 - - 1 Ramadan (prvi dan posta) - 2.9. 2008.; 22.8. 2009.; 11.8. 2010.;
 - - 17 Ramadan - Jevmi Bedr (Bitka na Bedru - prva Muhamedova i muslimanska vojna pobeda, u martu/ožujku 624.) i Dan Dijaspore
 - - 21 Ramadan (Smrt imama Alija) - 22.9. 2008.; 11.9. 2009.; 31.8. 2010.;
 - - Poslednja trećina Ramadana
 - - 26 Ramadan - uoči Laylat al-Qadr-a - "Noć Sudbine", kada je počelo otkrivanje Kurana
 - -  27 Ramadan (Nuzul Al-Qur'an) (17 Ramadan u Maleziji) - 28.9. 2008.; 17.9. 2009.; 6.9. 2010.;
 - - 1 Shawwal (Eid ul-Fitr ili Ramazanski bajram) - prvi dan: 2.10. 2008.; 21.9. 2009.; 10.9. 2010.;
 - - 8-10 Dhu al-Hijjah - Hadžiluk u Meki;
 - - 9. Dhu al-Hijjah - Dan stajanja na Arafatu
 - - 10 Dhu al-Hijjah Eid ul-Adha ili Kurban bajram - prvi dan: 9.12. 2008.; 28.11. 2009.; 17.11. 2010.;



Basic facts about Islam

The word "Islam" is an Arabic word which means "submission to the will of God". This word comes from the same root as the Arabic word "ٍٍSalam", which means "peace". As such, the religion of Islam teaches that in order to achieve true peace of mind and surety of heart, one must submit to God and live according to His Divinely revealed Law. The most important truth that God revealed to mankind is that there is nothing divine or worthy of being worshipped except for Almighty God, thus all human beings should submit to Him.

The word "Muslim" means one who submits to the will of God, regardless of their race, nationality or ethnic background. Being a Muslim entails willful submission and active obedience to God, and living in accordance with His message. Some people mistakenly believe that Islam is just a religion for Arabs, but nothing could be further from the truth. Not only are there converts to Islam in every corner of the world, especially in England and America, but by taking a look at the Muslim World from Bosnia to Nigeria, and from Indonesia to Morocco, one can clearly see that Muslims come from many various races, ethnic groups and nationalities. It is also interesting to note that in actuality, more than 80% of all Muslims are not Arabs - there are more Muslims in Indonesia than in the whole Arab World! So though even though it is true that most Arabs are Muslims, the large majority of Muslims are not Arabs.

However, anyone who submits completely to God and worships Him alone is a Muslim. Continuity of the Message: Islam is not a new religion because "submission to the will of God" (Islam), has always been the only acceptable religion in the sight of God. For this reason, Islam is the true "natural religion", and it is the same eternal message revealed through the ages to all of God's prophets and messengers. Muslims believe that all of God's prophets, which include Abraham, Noah, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad, brought the same message of Pure Monotheism. For this reason, the Prophet Muhammad was not the founder of a new religion, as many people mistakenly think, but he was the Final Prophet of Islam. By revealing His final message to Muhammad - peace and blessings of Allah be upon him - which is an eternal and universal message for all of mankind, God finally fulfilled the covenant that He made with Abraham, who was one of the earliest and greatest prophets. Suffice it to say that the way of Islam is the same as the way of the prophet Abraham, because both the Bible and the Qur'an portray Abraham as a towering example of someone who submitted himself completely to God and worshipped Him without intermediaries. Once this is realized, it should be clear that Islam has the most continuous and universal message of any religion, because all prophets and messengers were "Muslims", i.e. those who submitted to God's will, and they preached "Islam", i.e. submission to the will of Almighty God. Islam for a Better Life: Islam teaches that true happiness can only being obtained by living a life full of God-consciousness and being satisfied with what God has given us. Additionally, true "freedom" is freedom from being controlled by our base human desires and being ruled by man-made ideologies. This stands in stark contrast to the view of many people in the modern world, who consider "freedom" to be the ability to satisfy all of their desires without inhibition. The clear and comprehensive guidance of Islam gives human-beings a well-defined purpose and direction in life. In addition to being members of the human-brotherhood of Islam, its well-balanced and practical teachings are a source of spiritual comfort, guidance and morality.

A direct and clear relationship with Almighty God, as well as the sense of purpose and belonging that ones feels as a Muslim, frees a person from the many worries of everyday life. In short, the Islamic way of life is pure and wholesome. It builds self-discipline and self-control thought regular prayer and fasting, and frees human-beings from superstition and all sorts of racial, ethnic and national prejudices. By accepting to live a God-conscious life, and realizing that the only thing that distinguishes people in the sight of God is their consciousness of Him, a person's true human dignity is realized.


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